Headgear

Zucchetto (lat. pileolus) is used to cover the crown. It should be made of cloth in the winter and silk (watered in the case of the Pope and cardinals) in the summer; this applies to all the clergy, also the monastic one. The colours of the zucchetto correspond with the colour of the biretta or the cassock:
– the papal one is white
– the cardinal one is red, which applies also to religious cardinals
– this of bishops and abbots nullius is purple with a red lining
– the first three classes of protonotaries had a black zucchetto with trimming and a lining in amaranth red
– the rest of prelates wore a black one with purple accessories (formerly they were entitled only to red or purple lining)
– this of priests and the tonsured is all black
– zucchetto of monks is in the colour of the habit.
There were some regulations concerning wearing the zucchetto e.g. bishops put it off during celebration of a Mass from the beginning of the Canon to ablution after the Holy Communion; during the consecration, when they assisted to the Mass coram in a cope; additionally during the Gospel and the censing, when they assisted to the Mass coram in the choir dress. An additional rule was to put the zucchetto off during the Masses celebrated in the presence of the Holy Father. It wasn’t worn in the presence of the Most Blessed Sacrament exposed for adoration (although there were exceptions from that rule in the Latin Church) and while one gave reverence to the cross or relics. This was also the case during the blessing with the relics of the Holy Cross. In addition, no one was allowed to wear the zucchetto in the presence of the Holy Father: the exception were cardinals who, however, put it off in the moment of greeting the Pope, which some dignitaries do even today.

Patriarcha Antiochii, Kard. Tappouni, witający się z papieżem Piusem XII.
The patriarch of Antioch, card. Tappouni, greeting Pope Pius XII.

The papal camerino (it. camauro) played the role similar to this of the biretta of other clergymen and, similarly to the winter mozzetta, had two versions: an ordinary one, made of red velvet and one of white, silken damask in the Octave of Easter; both had the ermine lining and trimming.

Pius XI w stroju chórowym: mucet, camerino oraz rokieta (griccia).
Pius XI in the choir dress: the mozzetta, the camerino and the rochet (griccia).

In the case of birettas there has been and still is a large variety connected with the abundance of privileges which we will not mention here, but only describe standard regulations. Birettas has been made of two types of fabric: silk and cotton. Silk was allowed for cardinals and bishops in the summer time and for the prelates di mantelletta and di mantellone all year round. Ordinary priests and seminarians wear woollen birettas all year round, whereas cardinals and bishops in the winter time. Cardinals, also the religious ones, have red birettas of watered silk or cloth with a crimson lining; instead of a pompon there is a small silken loop. They did never wear the biretta received on the consistory, but, in order to show respect for its origins, they put it on the place of honour in their anticamera between two candlesticks. The birettas of the cardinals in pectore rested in a private papal chapel under glass shades.

Kardynałowie Rugambwa, w żałobnym stroju, oraz Browne O.P. w czasie sediswakancji 1963 r.
Cardinals Rugambwa, in mourning dress, and Browne O.P. during the sede vacante of 1963.

Bishops, also religious ones, wore a purple biretta made of silk or cloth with a green lining. The protonotaries of the first three classes had a black biretta with a red pompon. The other prelates had a black biretta with a purple tuft; whereas the prelates di mantelleta had a crimson lining and the prelates di mantellone a purple one. Ordinary priests and seminarians have black, woollen birettas with a black lining. The regulations did not allow linings in the colour different from the colour of the biretta itself.

Prałaci domowi w strojach chórowych.
Domestic prelates in the choir dress.

The pontifical hat, galero, unfortunately has practically gone out of the proper use in the time of the fall of the Papal States. Until that time it had been worn commonly during papal cavalcades and also during solemn arrivals to cities or processions to cathedrals during relevant feasts. A galero was tied under the chin and on both sides hung two ropes of triangularly set pompons whose number depended on the rank of the prelate.

Abp Ursi w czasie ingresu na stolicę biskupią (rok 1961).
Abp Corrado Ursi during the ingress on the bishop see (1961).

Cardinals during the consistory received so called galero parasole (what means umbrella-like). It was made of red silk and had two long ropes of tassels. Once it had been kept over the cardinal’s head by one of his courtiers during the processions (hence the name, probably). Later on, such a galero had purely representative functions: the dean of the cardinal’s court always kept it hung on the left arm during important feasts. It was also carried in the funeral procession and laid on or before the catafalque of the deceased cardinal.

Galero parasole w połączeniu z uroczystym strojem chórowym kardynała Gilroya.
Galero parasole combined with the solemn choir dress of cardinal Gilroy.

The galero parasole, according to an old custom, was hung over the sepulchre of the deceased cardinal. Another tradition says that when such a hat fell down it was the sign that the given cardinal had left the Purgatory.

Zawieszanie galero zmarłego arcybiskupa Chicago kardynała Meyera.
Hanging of the galero of the deceased archbishop of Chicago, cardinal Meyer.

Some sources say that also the Pope wore a red, velvet galero. However, some descriptions say it could be an ordinary papal hat with its brim raised. Cardinals wore a red galero made of cloth and lined with silk. Adornments, including cords and tassels, were interspersed with gold.

Arcybiskup Mediolanu kard. Schuster w cappa magna i galero.
Archbishop of Milan, Alfredo card. Schuster in the cappa magna and the galero.

Patriarchs and archbishops wore a green galero with golden accessories, whereas this of bishops and the regent of the Papal Chancery was all green. Those hats were made of silk, although theoretically they should be made of black cloth and have only a silken lining. The apostolic protonotaries of the first three classes had their galero made of black cloth with silken accessories, lining and strings in amaranth.

Galero arcybiskupie z muzeum diecezji Reggio Calabria.
A galero of an archbishop from the museum of the diocese of Reggio Calabria.

The galero was a sign of jurisdiction, so it was worn in the area of one’s jurisdiction  and always with the cappa magna, on the hood of which the hat was donned. Unfortunately, such a way of wearing the galero gradually went out of use. Apart from the described headgear, the aforementioned protonotaries wore semi-pontifical hats, which were characterised by the brim smaller than this of the typical galero. Also the prelates votantes and refendarii of the Apostolic Signatura and the Masters of Ceremony of the Apostolic Palaces were entitled to that hat, but it had velvet trimmings.

Fresk Rafała Santi
The fresco Meeting of Leo the Great and Attila by Raphael presents the way the galero was worn with the cappa magna.

The Pope for horse riding or during the walks in Vatican gardens donned a hat similar to the saturno: a red, felt, decorated with a golden ribbon or a cord with tassels, but with broader and more strongly raised brim held with golden ropes.

Pius IX w otoczeniu Antykamery Papieskiej (Sekretnej). Mons. Pacca (drugi od prawej) trzyma wspomniany papieski kapelusz. Przy nim stoi Prefekt Kaplicy Apostolskiej, papieski zakrystianin, mons. Martinelli O.S.A. (zakrystianie mieli przywilej noszenia rokiety, ale rzadko jej używali; nosili za to zawsze mantolet i mucet), obok którego leży dawny, trójrożny kapelusz rzymski.
Pius IX surrounded by the Papal (Secret) Anticamera. Mons. Pacca (the second on the right) holds the aforementioned papal hat. Near him stands the Prefect of the Papal Chapel, a papal sacristan, Mons. Martinelli O.S.A. (the sacristans had the privilege of wearing a rochet, but used it rarely; they always wore, however, a mantelletta and a mozzetta) next to whom lies an old, tri-corner, Roman hat.

The non-liturgical hat used by the clergy is so called saturno. It was made of beaver hair, although it is often substituted with felt. It was in two colours: red for the Pope and cardinals and black for the rest of the clergy. The saturno had ropes joining the brim with the head of the hat, used for raising the rim of the hat.

Jan Paweł II w papieskim saturno (Nagasaki).
John Paul II in a papal saturno (Nagasaki).

The distinguishing mark of the rank in the hierarchy is accessories in the form of a silken ribbon or a cord ended with pompons in the proper colour, which applies also to the lining of the hat:
– golden-red for the Pope and cardinals
– golden-green for patriarchs and archbishops
– green for bishops and the regent of the Apostolic Chancery
– red in the amaranth shade for apostolic protonotaries
– purple for domestic prelates and the prelates di mantellone outside of Rome
– black for the titular protonotaries and the rest of the clergy.

Jan XXIII w słomianym letnim saturno.
John XXIII in a summer straw saturno.

[English translation by Marek]