Ferraiolo (it. ferraiolone, ferraiolo – formerly there were two different types of outerwear) – the coat worn by the clergy during various important ceremonies, mainly non-liturgical ones: – cardinals had ferraiolos made of moire in two colours: red and purple with smooth silk trimmings for a penitential-mourning time. They seem to have had red ferraiolo, made of smooth silk, which they used for more everyday events ( e.g. in the Roman Curia) – purple ones, made of watered silk, were worn by nuncios and apostolic delegates – the prelates di mantelletta, bishops, archbishops and patriarchs wore purple ones, made of silk; during a mourning period, they changed it for black ones, made of silk (domestic prelates only during the mourning for the Pope) – black ones, made of silk, were worn by the prelates di mantellone – black, woollen ones were worn by priests.
The ferraiolo of religious prelates were in the colours proper to the given order; thus they usually corresponded to the colour of habits but there were also exceptions, e.g. Franciscan accessories for the choir dress were grey.
Tabarro can be worn by any clergyman. It is made of cloth, lined with silk on the front, and the collar is made of velvet: – a red tabarro, but with a stand-up collar, lined with satin, with golden clasps and red-golden lining of the cape, is worn by the Pope – cardinals wear red tabarro with golden clasps; during penitential-mourning periods they wear purple ones, with a red collar and lining; cardinals, as well as patriarchs and archbishops, have their coats trimmed with golden galloon – the tabarro of religious prelates, as other elements of their dress, is usually in the colour of their habit – the dignitaries who are between the cardinals and prelates di mantellone in the Church hierarchy are entitled to purple tabarro with silver clasps – the prelates di mantellone, regular priests and all prelates in informal situations wear black tabarro. It is also worn by everyone, with the exception of cardinals, during a penitential-mourning time.
A characteristic Polish winter coat of the higher clergy was szuba: the coat lined with fur, not fastened on the front, with a big, turn-down collar, sometimes also with fur cuffs. It was donned on the choir dress outside and inside of a church. Its colour changed depending on the rank of the dignitary who wore it. The szuba was worn by cardinals, bishops and Cracovian canons and also papal legates abiding in Poland.
For non-ecclesiastical duties the clergy used to wear various coats and capes. A long, double-breasted coat with velvet or velour collar, covering the cassock, was most popular – white for the Pope and black for the rest of the clergy. It was called the greca; the name was borrowed from Italian.
[English translation by Dorota]