De vestimentis

Mozzetta and mantelletta

The mozzetta it is a sign of jurisdiction and although has survived the last reforms, the hood has been cut. The hood survived only in the papal mozzetta and mozzettas some of the canon chapters. The Pope can wear the mozzetta everywhere, in addition, with a stole on it. Similarly to the stole, the papal mozzetta can be in two colours: red or white in the Octave of Easter. Then, exceptionally, the mozzetta is made of velvet damask. In the winter time the papal mozzetta is silken, with ermine trim, whereas in summer it is made of silk, without  trim. During a penitential time the Pope used to wear a mozzetta made of serge or cloth.

Pope Benedict XVI in paschal mozzetta.

Cardinals also could wear a mozzetta everywhere. Only when being in Rome they put a mantelletta under it, unless they abode in their titular church. In that case they put only a mozzetta on a rochet. The mozzetta corresponded to the choir cassock in terms of colour and fabric.

Kardynał della Chiesa w letnim stroju chórowym z jedwabiu falistego.
In the picture: cardinal della Chiesa in the summer choir dress made of watered silk.

The episcopal mozzetta is made of wool (merino, camel), as the rest of a bishop’s outfit, and, naturally, corresponds to the choir cassock in terms of colour. The Assistants at the Pontifical Throne were not the exceptions, because they were entitled to silk only in Rome, and there they could not wear mozzetta. The situation of the patriarchs was different: they were the Assistants ex officio and the mozzetta was an integral part of their outfit also in Rome. In compliance with the rule, the mozzetta could be worn only in the area of the bishop’s jurisdiction; the exception was the provincial synod where bishops also wore mozzettaIn the presence of a cardinal, a bishop in his diocese as well as an archbishop in his archdiocese wore a mantelletta under a mozzetta; if the cardinal was the legate a latere, they would wear only a mantelletta. In other cases they put a mozzetta on a rochet.

Bp Jan Foley, biskup Detroit, w stroju chórowym z rozpuszczonym trenem sutanny.
Bishop John Foley, bishop of Detroit, in choir dress with unfolded train of the cassock.

Similarly to the other parts of the choir dress, the mozzetta of the religious prelates and abbots corresponded to their cassocks or habits in the question of colour. In the case of cardinals, archbishops and bishops, the mozzetta had silken lining and trim – as the one of their counterparts from the secular clergy.

O. Benedykt Biros, opat klasztoru OO. Cystersów w Szczyrzycu.
In the photo: Fr. Benedykt Biros, the abbot of the Cistercian abbey in Szczyrzyc.

Very often cathedral canons and collegiate chapters have such a privilege which applies naturally only to the territory of the diocese of the given chapter (unless they accompany the bishop, or they represent him or the chapter during some feasts). The mozzetta of canons can be utterly diverse in the matter of the shape and colours.

Ksiądz kanonik Jussiaume z Nantes.
Canon Jussiaume of Nantes.

A mantelletta, contrary to a mozzetta, is a sign of a limited jurisdiction, although it may also be a sign of the ecclesiastical rank. The fabric, the colour and the trimmings of a mantelletta are the same as of a mozzetta. In token of the acknowledgement of the supremacy of the papal authority, cardinals wear a mantelletta under a mozzetta in the area of Rome, with the exception of their titular churches.

Na zdjęciu kard. Ottaviani w Rzymie w zimowym stroju chórowym.
In the photo: card. Ottaviani in Rome in the winter choir dress.

A mantelletta has a slit on the front and two slits for hands. The trim (also around the holes for the arms) is always made of silk. Patriarchs, archbishops and bishops put a mantelletta on a rochet outside of the area of their jurisdiction, which the titular bishops always do. In their area of jurisdiction they don a mantelletta covered by a mozzetta in the presence of a cardinal; if he is the  legate a latere, they put on only a mantelletta.

Ksiądz Eugeniusz Baziak zapewne jako biskup pomocniczy diecezji lwowskiej.
The archbishop Eugene Baziak, allegedly as the auxiliary bishop of the diocese of Lwów (Lvov).

The mantelletta of religious prelates in terms of colour, fabric and trim did not differ from the mozzetta, namely it was adapted to the monastic dress. Moreover, some abbots had the privilege of wearing the choir dress outside of the area of their jurisdiction; thus, in such a case, they also used a mantelletta.

trzech opatów benedyktyńskich w czasie obrad soborowych, od lewej: o. Weber, o. Dworschak i o. Melancon. Należeli do kongregacji amerykańsko-kasyneńskiej oraz szwajcarsko-amerykańskiej, do których był przywiązany przywilej noszenia stroju chórowego poza właściwym terenem jurysdykcji.
Three Benedictine abbots during the Second Vatican Council, from the left: fr Weber, fr Dworschak and fr Melancon. They belonged to the American-Cassinese and the Swiss-American congregations; these were granted the privilege of wearing the choir dress outside of the proper area of jurisdiction.

The prelates of the Papal Court also had the privilege of wearing a mantelletta – hence they were called the prelates di mantelletta. They were: apostolic protonotaries of the first three classes, the votantes and the referendarii of the Apostolic Signatura, the auditors of the Roman Rota, the clerici of the Apostolic Camera and domestic prelates. All they, similarly to the bishops Assistants to the Pontifical Throne who lived in Rome, used to wear purple mantellettas made of silk in the summer and of cloth during the winter. They changed them for black ones, with purple silken trimmings, during the sede vacante and on Good Friday.

The funeral of John XXIII: papal Masters of Ceremonies, Dante and Capoferri, in the black mantellettas.

Certain canon chapters were entitled to the mantelletta in various forms, and its usage was restricted by the same rules as the usage of a mozzetta. The mantelletta could be worn by the honorary apostolic protonotaries: such a mantelletta was all black, woollen, with silken trim (this is why they were called “black protonotaries”). Before Pope Pius X, it had been put directly on the choir cassock, because they hadn’t had the privilege of using the rochet. They received it form Pope Pius X. He also granted vicars general and vicars capitular the privilege of the black mantalletta.

Ksiądz kanonik Marian Szczerkowski.
Canon Marian Szczerkowski.

[English translation by Dorota]